印媒: 借助阿根廷的空间站,中国逐步扩大在拉美的影响力

From a space station in Argentina, China expands its reach in Latin America 借助阿根廷的空间站,中国逐步扩大在拉丁美洲的影响力 QUINTUCO (ARGENTINA): The giant antenna rises from the desert floor like an apparition, a gleaming metal tower jutting 16 stories above an endless wind-whipped stretch of Patagonia. 昆图科(阿根廷):巨大的天线像幽灵一样从沙漠中升起,一座闪耀的金属塔耸立在绵延无尽的巴塔哥尼亚上空,总高16层。 65186983.jpg The 450-ton device, with its hulking dish embracing the open skies, is the centerpiece of a $50 million satellite and space mission control station built by the Chinese military. 这台450吨重的设备是中国军方建造的一个价值5000万美元的卫星和太空航行地面指挥站的核心部件。 The isolated base is one of the most striking symbols of Beijing’s long push to transform Latin America and shape its future for generations to come — often in ways that directly undermine the United States’ political, economic and strategic power in the region. 这个与世隔绝的基地是中国长期推动拉美转型、塑造未来的最引人注目的标志之一,这种方式会直接削弱美国在拉美的政治、经济和战略势力。 The station began operating in March, playing a pivotal role in China’s audacious expedition to the far side of the moon — an endeavor that Argentine officials say they are elated to support. 该空间站于今年3月开始启用,在中国大胆探索月球背面的行动中发挥了关键作用。阿根廷官员表示,他们为能支持这一行动感到高兴。 But the way the base was negotiated — in secret, at a time when Argentina desperately needed investment — and concerns that it could enhance China’s intelligence gathering capabilities in the hemisphere have set off a debate in Argentina about the risks and benefits of being pulled into China’s orbit. 但这个基地的协商方式——在阿根廷迫切需要投资之际进行秘密谈判——以及对它可能增强中国在西半球的情报收集能力的担忧,在阿根廷引发了一场关于被拉入中国轨道的利与弊的辩论。 “Beijing has transformed the dynamics of the region, from the agendas of its leaders and businessmen to the structure of its economies, the content of its politics and even its security dynamics,” said R Evan Ellis, a professor of Latin American studies at the US Army War College. 美国陆军战争学院拉丁美洲研究教授埃文•艾利斯表示:“北京在该地区的行动已从领导人和商界人士转变为经济结构、政治内容,乃至安全动态。” For much of the past decade, the United States has paid little attention to its backyard in the Americas. Instead, it declared a pivot toward Asia, hoping to strengthen economic, military and diplomatic ties as part of the Obama administration’s strategy to constrain China. 在过去十年的大部分时间里,美国很少关注自己在美洲的后院。相反,美国宣布以亚洲为轴心,希望加强经济、军事和外交关系,作为奥巴马政府遏制中国战略的一部分。 Since taking office, the Trump administration has retreated from that approach in some fundamental ways, walking away from a free-trade pact with Pacific nations, launching a global trade war and complaining about the burden of Washington’s security commitments to its closest allies in Asia and other parts of the world. 自上任以来,特朗普政府已在一些根本方面放弃了这种做法,放弃了与太平洋国家的自由贸易协定,发动了一场全球贸易战,并抱怨华盛顿对其在亚洲和世界其他地区最亲密盟友所做的安全承诺负担过于沉重。 All the while, China has been discreetly carrying out a far-reaching plan of its own across Latin America. It has vastly expanded trade, bailed out governments, built enormous infrastructure projects, strengthened military ties and locked up tremendous amounts of resources, hitching the fate of several countries in the region to its own. 一直以来,中国一直谨慎地在拉美地区实施影响深远的计划。中国大幅扩大了贸易,帮助各国政府摆脱了困境,建设了庞大的基础设施项目,加强了军事联系,并封锁了大量资源,将该地区几个国家的命运与自己的命运联系在一起。 Even with parts of Latin America witnessing a rightwards political shift in the recent years, its leaders have tailored their policies to fulfill China’s demand. Now Beijing’s dominance in much of the region — and what it means for America’s waning stature — is starting to come into sharp focus. 尽管近年来拉丁美洲的部分地区正经历着一场右倾的政治转变,但拉美领导人已经调整了自己的政策,以满足中国的需求。如今,北京在亚洲大部分地区的主导地位——以及这对美国日渐式微的地位意味着什么——开始成为人们关注的焦点。 “It’s a fait accompli,” said Diego Guelar, Argentina’s ambassador to China. “这是既成事实,”阿根廷驻华大使迭戈•圭拉表示。 Trade between China and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean reached $244 billion last year, more than twice what it was a decade earlier, according to Boston University’s Global Development Policy Center. Since 2015, China has been South America’s top trading partner, eclipsing the United States. 波士顿大学全球发展政策中心的数据显示,去年中国与拉美和加勒比国家之间的贸易额达到2440亿美元,是十年前的两倍多。自2015年以来,中国一直是南美最大的贸易伙伴,超过了美国。 Perhaps more significantly, China has issued tens of billions of dollars in commodities-backed loans across the Americas, giving it claim over a large share of the region’s oil — including nearly 90 per cent of Ecuador’s reserves — for years. 或许更重要的是,多年来,中国在美洲各地发放了数百亿美元的大宗商品支持贷款,从而获得了该地区石油的很大份额,其中包括厄瓜多尔近90%的储量。 China has also made itself indispensable by rescuing embattled governments and vital state-controlled companies in countries like Venezuela and Brazil, willing to make big bets to secure its place in the region. 中国也让自己成为委内瑞拉和巴西等国不可或缺的力量,救助了陷入困境的政府和关键的国有控股公司,中国也为了再该地区确保自己的地位而豪赌。 Here in Argentina, a nation that had been shut out of international credit markets for defaulting on about $100 billion in bonds, China became a godsend for then-President Cristina Fernández. 阿根廷因无力偿还1000亿美元债券而被国际信贷市场拒之门外的国家,而中国成为当时的阿根廷总统克里斯蒂娜•费尔南德斯的天赐良机。 And while it was extending a helping hand, China began the secret negotiations that led to the satellite and space control station here in Patagonia. 在伸出援助之手的同时,中国开始了秘密谈判,因此获得了巴塔哥尼亚卫星和空间控制站。 Argentine officials say the Chinese have agreed not to use the base for military purposes. But experts contend that the technology on it has many strategic uses. 阿根廷官员说,中国同意不把这个基地用于军事目的。但专家认为,基地的技术有许多战略用途。 Frank A Rose, an assistant secretary of state for arms control during the Obama administration, said he spent much of his time worrying about China’s budding space program. US intelligence and defense officials watched with alarm as China developed sophisticated technology to jam, disrupt and destroy satellites in recent years, he said. 奥巴马政府时期负责军备控制的助理国务卿弗兰克·A·罗斯说,他对中国正在萌芽的太空计划焦虑已久。他说,美国情报和国防官员警惕地注视着中国近年来研发的堵塞、干扰和摧毁卫星的先进技术。 “They are deploying these capabilities to blunt American military advantages, which are in many ways derived from space,” Rose said. “他们正通过这些功能来削弱美国的军事优势,这些优势在很多方面都源自太空,”罗斯说。 Antennas and other equipment that support space missions, like the kind China now has here in Patagonia, can increase China’s intelligence-gathering capabilities, experts say. 专家说,天线和其他支持太空任务的设备,比如中国目前在巴塔哥尼亚拥有的设备,可以提高中国的情报收集能力。 Lt Col Christopher Logan, a Pentagon spokesman, said US military officials were assessing the implications of the Chinese monitoring station. Chinese officials declined requests for interviews about the base and their space program. 五角大楼发言人克里斯托弗•洛根上校表示,美国军方官员正在评估中国监测站的影响。中国官员拒绝就基地及其太空项目接受采访。 Beyond any strategic contest with the United States, some leaders in Latin America are now having doubts and regrets about their ties to China, worried that past governments have saddled their nations with enormous debt and effectively sold out their futures. 除了与美国的任何战略竞争之外,拉美的一些领导人现在对他们与中国的关系感到怀疑和遗憾,他们担心过去的政府给他们的国家带来了巨额债务,实际上出卖了他们的未来。 But Guelar argued that hitting the brakes on engagement with China would be shortsighted, particularly at a time when Washington has given up its long-standing role as the region’s political and economic anchor. 但圭拉认为,停止与中国接触是目光短浅的行为,尤其是在华盛顿放弃其作为该地区政治和经济支柱的长期角色之际。 “There has been an abdication” of leadership by the United States, he said. “It surrendered that role not because it lost it, but because it doesn’t wish to take it on.” 他说,美国“已经放弃了”领导地位。“它放弃这个角色不是因为它失去能力,而是因为不愿担起责任。” The Argentine government was in crisis mode in 2009. Inflation was high. Billions of dollars in debt payments were coming due. Anger was swelling over the government, including its decision to nationalize $30 billion in private pension funds. And the worst drought in five decades was making the economic situation even more bleak. 阿根廷政府在2009年陷入危机。通货膨胀率高。数十亿美元的债务即将到期。人们对政府的愤怒日益高涨,尤其是政府决定将300亿美元的私人养老基金收归国有。五十年来最严重的干旱使经济形势更加严峻。 Enter China. First, it struck a $10.2 billion currency swap deal that helped stabilize the Argentine peso, and then promised to invest $10 billion to fix the nation’s dilapidated rail system. 回到中国,首先,它达成了102亿美元的货币互换协议,帮助阿根廷政府稳定了阿根廷比索,然后承诺投资100亿美元来修复该国破旧的铁路系统。 In the middle of all this, China also dispatched a team to Argentina to discuss Beijing’s ambitions in space. 在此期间,中国还派出一个小组前往阿根廷,讨论北京方面在太空方面的野心。 The Chinese wanted a satellite-tracking hub on the other side of the globe before the launch of an expedition to the far side of the moon. 中国人想在对月球远端进行考察之前,在地球的另一面建立一个卫星跟踪中心。
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