美国研发新拦截器,对付俄罗斯和中国高超音速导弹

This Is How the U.S. Military Wants to Shoot Down Russian or Chinese Hypersonic Missiles 这就是美国军方想要击落俄罗斯或中国高超音速导弹的方式 Michael Peck Security, Worried by the prospect that hypersonic missiles blazing through American anti-missiles defenses at many times the speed of sound, it's no surprise that the U.S. Missile Defense Agency wants an interceptor rocket that travels at hypersonic speeds (faster than Mach 5). 由于担心高超音速导弹以数倍于音速的速度穿过美国反导系统,美国导弹防御局想要一种超音速(比5马赫更快)的拦截火箭就不足为奇了。 The MDA is quietly taking a step toward this by putting out a research proposal to develop control systems that will enable interceptors to perform high-G maneuvers at hypersonic speeds. 美国导弹防御局正悄然朝着这一目标迈出一步,提出了一项研究计划,开发能够让拦截器在高超音速下执行高量程机动的控制系统。 MDA says it wants ideas for “maximizing maneuverability and minimizing kinetic energy losses to the greatest extent possible while allowing controlled flight in a hypersonic environment.” 导弹防御局表示,他们要的是“最大化机动能力,最大限度地减少动能损失,同时允许在高超音速环境中进行受控飞行”的构想。 3.jpg “Proposers may also assume a range of velocities above Mach 5 and a range of altitudes up to 50 kilometers [31 miles]. Solutions could have applicability to small interceptors, such as projectiles shorter than one meter [3.2 feet or larger interceptors, such as missiles over 5 meters [16.4 feet] long.” 提议者可以假设速度范围超过5马赫,高度围达到50千米[31英里]。解决方案可以适用于小型拦截器,例如短于1米(3.2英尺)的炮弹或长于5米(16.4英尺)以上的导弹。 This sounds pretty straightforward, but it's not. Consider a hypersonic missile streaking through the atmosphere at Mach 5 plus (DARPA has tested hypersonic vehicles that reportedly reached a speed of Mach 20 before they burned up). Combine this with an interceptor closing in at Mach 5 plus, and the combined approach speed makes a hit challenging. 这听起来很简单,但事实并非如此。以高超音速导弹为例,它以5马赫以上的速度穿过大气层(美国国防部高级研究计划局已经测试了据说在燃烧前速度达到20马赫的高超音速飞行器)。再加上拦截器以5马赫加的速度逼近,这使得打击具有挑战性。 Interestingly, MDA noted that “the government has invested extensively in technologies for cruciform divert systems,” which are thrusters that allow the rocket to perform maneuvers. MDA does not want cruciform divert for this project. 有趣的是,导弹防御局指出,“政府已经在十字形分流系统的技术上投入了大量资金”,十字形分流系统是允许火箭进行机动的推进器。导弹防御局不希望这个项目采用十字形分流系统。 Hypersonic missiles are an unwelcome change for U.S. missile defense, which focused through the Cold War and afterwards on ICBMs and now theater-level ballistic missiles. ICBMs ascend into and cruise through outer space before releasing their warheads to plunge through the atmosphere at Mach 23, which makes space the best place to intercept them. But hypersonic missiles travel at high speeds within the atmosphere, and they can maneuver to take evasive action, rather than following a rigid ballistic trajectory as they descend. MDA has requested $120.4 million in FY2019 for defense against hypersonic weapons. 高超音速导弹对美国导弹防御系统来说是一个不受欢迎的变化。冷战期间,美国的导弹防御系统主要集中在洲际弹道导弹上,后来又集中在战场级别的弹道导弹上。洲际弹道导弹在发射弹头以23马赫的速度穿过大气层之前,先进入外层空间并进行巡航,这使太空成为拦截它们的最佳地点。但高超音速导弹在大气层中以高速飞行,它们可以机动采取规避动作,而不是在下降时沿着弹道轨迹飞行。美国导弹防御局要求在2019财年投入1.204亿美元用于防御高超音速武器。 “MDA has openly acknowledged that current interceptors are not designed to intersect maneuverable hypersonic missiles, and that it wants to optimize them for that purpose,” James Acton, co-director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace, told the National Interest. “It sounds to me that this solicitation is about moving in that direction.” 卡内基国际和平基金会核政策项目联席主管詹姆斯•阿克顿向《国家利益报》表示:“导弹防御局公开承认,目前的拦截器不是设计来拦截可操纵的高超音速导弹的,但它希望以此为目标对其进行优化。” “I assume that some existing interceptors do travel at hypersonic speeds, but that they would need more maneuvering capability to hit maneuverable targets,” Acton added. 阿克顿补充说:“我认为一些现有的拦截器确实以能高超音速飞行,但它们需要更多的机动能力才能击中可机动目标。” This raises the thorny question of whether hypersonic interceptors could destabilize international arms control and trigger an arms race. Acton believes that interceptors targeting non-strategic missiles would be acceptable. “The U.S. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) is already fairly effective against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles that go faster than hypersonic weapons of the same range. So, yes, I think point defenses against hypersonic are feasible and wouldn’t be destabilizing.” 这就提出了一个棘手的问题:高超音速拦截器是否会破坏国际军备控制的稳定,引发军备竞赛。阿克顿认为,以非战略导弹为目标的拦截器是可以接受的。“美国末段高空区域防御系统(萨德)已经能够相当有效地对抗短程和中程弹道导弹,这些导弹比同样射程的高超音速武器速度更快。所以我认为针对高超音速的点防御是可行的,不会造成不稳定。 But hypersonic interceptors aimed at ICBMs would be a different matter. “Area defenses against hypersonics would be considered destabilizing, by threatening Russia’s and China’s second strike capabilities. But I don’t think they are feasible.” 但以洲际弹道导弹为目标的高超音速拦截器则是另一回事。阿克顿认为,通过威胁俄罗斯和中国的二次打击能力,针对超高音速导弹的区域防御将被认为是不稳定的。然而,我不认为它们可行。 Meanwhile, DARPA is soliciting ideas for its Glide Breaker defense system against hypersonics. “The objective of the Glide Breaker program is to further the capability of the United States to defend against supersonic and the entire class of hypersonic threats,” DARPA says. 与此同时,美国国防部高级研究计划局正在为其“滑翔破坏者”防御系统征求意见。美国国防部高级研究计划局表示:““滑翔破坏者”的目标是进一步提高美国抵御超音速和高超音速威胁的能力。”   美国雅虎读者评论: 来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46076.html   译者:Jessica.Wu 外文:https://www.yahoo.com/news/u-military-wants-shoot-down-180000941.html
Stuart12 hours ago Why not go for the energy weapons like lasers. They travel at the speed of light so will easily over match hypersonic missiles with no maneuvers possible with such a rapid transect. 为什么不试试像激光这样的能量武器呢?它们以光速飞行,所以很容易就能超过超音速导弹。
 
Phil T9 hours ago Lasers at distance destroying an incoming traveling at Mach 5 ... Hugh power requirements. Extrodinary targeting issues. Hard to visualize how they can keep it on target long enough to do damage. 远距离激光摧毁了以5马赫行进的来袭目标?得多大的威力,怎么锁定目标。很难想象它们如何能对目标造成伤害。
 
terry booth13 hours ago Do you think the Russians and Chinese would try not to use technology because it could be called "destabilizing"? Destabilize away, while we still can! 你认为俄罗斯和中国会因为可能被称为“破坏稳定”而不使用这种技术吗?
 
Paul12 hours ago Does anyone else see the problem here? Russia GDP is less then 2% of the worlds. Yet their militarily equal to the United States and can make us spend tens of billions to counteract their plans. 有人注意到这个问题吗?--俄罗斯GDP还不到世界的2%,但他们的军事实力与美国相当,使得我们要花费数百亿美元来对抗他们的计划。
 
Jesse12 hours ago Oh please, the Argentinians sank 90% of the British Fleet at the Falklands with just subsonic A-4 airplanes armed with iron bombs. While the British were equipped with the best radars and anti-missile weapons. 哦,拜托,阿根廷人在福克兰群岛用亚音速携带普通炸弹的A-4飞机击沉了90%的英国舰队,而且英国舰队装备了最好的雷达和反导武器。
 
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