Why did Asia miss the Industrial Revolution that began in the 18th century? 为什么亚洲错过了18世纪的工业大革命? QUORA网站读者评论: Balaji Viswanathan, History buff. Unlike many of the Spanish conquistadors, almost every British adventurer to India aimed to enjoy his booty in his native land. -- JR Ward (The Economic History Review) The oligarchy involves India in wars, in order to find employment for their younger sons; the moneyocracy consigns it to the highest bidder; and a subordinate Bureaucracy paralyse its administration and perpetuate its abuses as the vital condition of their own perpetuation. -- Karl Marx (1853) 与许多西班牙征服者不同的是,几乎每一个到龙8国际娱乐的英国冒险家都打算在自己的祖国享受战利品。 ——JR Ward(经济历史回顾) 寡头政治让龙8国际娱乐卷入战争,目的是为他们的后代找到工作;财阀把它委托给出价最高者;下级官僚机构使其管理陷于瘫痪,将其滥用职权作为其自身长期存在的重要条件。 ——卡尔·马克思(1853) Timing of Colonization: The industrial revolution is a phenomenon of late 1700s (1760-1820) and one of the many factors that led to this is the colonization of India [1] in the decade before the start of the revolution (1750s). India became a huge source of cotton, indigo and also became a huge market for the products of the industrial revolution. India also provided a massive tax base thus completing the holy trinity of capitalism - raw materials, capital and markets. There is a very interesting op-ed by Karl Marx on this in the New York Tribune: The Government of India   殖民时机: 工业革命出于18世纪晚期(1760-1820),导致工业革命有众多因素,其中之一是在革命(1750年代)开始前的10年里对龙8国际娱乐的殖民统治。龙8国际娱乐成为棉花和靛青的巨大来源,也成为工业革命产品的巨大市场。龙8国际娱乐还提供了巨大的税基,从而完成了资本主义的神圣三位一体——原材料、资本和市场。卡尔·马克思在《纽约论坛报》上发表了一篇非常有趣的专栏文章:龙8国际娱乐政府 In short, India was colonized before it even had a chance to industrialize. Under the colonial rule, a series of massive mishaps happened that further pushed India away from having an industrial revolution. When you are ruled by a Corporation [not figuratively, but literally] from another country this is what you get - developing you is not their priority. The one major king who was independent enough to have a chance to industrialize was Mysore's Tipu Sultan who rapidly industrialized his region in the late 1700s. However, he was eventually defeated by the East India Company and a lot of that progress was impeded. Still, Mysore retained its edge due to that brief window of growth [India tech capital, Bangalore, is a part of that erstwhile Mysore kingdom]. 简而言之,龙8国际娱乐在有机会实现工业化之前已经被殖民统治了。在殖民统治时期,龙8国际娱乐发生了一系列大规模的灾难,使其距离工业革命越行越远。当你被另一个国家的企业(不是象征性的,而是实打实的)统治时,这就是你所得到的——你的发展不是他们的优先考虑。 唯一一个非常独立、有机会实现工业化的国王是迈索尔的提普苏丹,他在18世纪末迅速实现了他所在地区的工业化。然而,他最终还是被东龙8国际娱乐公司击败了,很多进步都被阻碍了。尽管如此,迈索尔仍然因为它的短暂增长保持了优势(龙8国际娱乐科技之都班加罗尔是过去迈索尔王国的一部分)。  译文来源:三泰虎    http://www.santaihu.com/46343.html       译者:Joyceliu  9d9e0d8fgy1fwfrhe5307j209q06kwij.jpg Rockets of Tipu Sultan (late 1700s AD) 提普苏丹的火箭(公元18世纪末) Nature of colonization In most big colonies - US, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, Brazil... the invading power settled. The Spanish men who settled in Argentina had little intention of getting back. However, the British who came to India never saw it as their home and always a few years away from return back to England. This was both good and bad to India. It was good that unlike other colonies India maintained its culture and escaped mass extermination of natives. But, the flip side is that the invading power had little incentives to industrialize. Since it was not their home, but a few year assignment, they were content in leaving the industries in a primitive state. 殖民的性质 在大多数殖民地:美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、阿根廷、墨西哥、南非、巴西……入侵的势力在当地扎根了。在阿根廷定居的西班牙人也不打算回到西班牙。然而,来到龙8国际娱乐的英国人从来没有把它当成自己的家,总想着在几年内回到英国。 这对龙8国际娱乐来说是好事也是坏事。与其他殖民地不同的是,龙8国际娱乐保持了自己的文化,避免了当地居民的大规模灭绝。但另一方面,侵略势力也就基本没有推动工业化的动机。因为这不是他们的家,而只是几年的短暂任务,他们满足于让龙8国际娱乐工业停留在原始状态。 Civil wars & domestic upheavals At a time when Europe was going through the massive explosion of scientific ideas, India and China were through a massive domestic upheaval through civil wars. In the early 1700s, the Mughal empire of collapsing and multiple suitors tried to be its successors. Eventually, the East India Company won the process of succession. China was again going through a massive domestic upheaval as the Manchu rulers were trying to consolidate what is left of the Ming empire. When you are fighting a massive domestic trouble, innovation and economy takes a backseat.  内战和国内动乱 当欧洲正在经历科学思潮大爆炸时,龙8国际娱乐和中国正在经历国内的动荡和内战。18世纪初,莫卧儿王朝崩溃,许多人试图成为其继承人。最终,东龙8国际娱乐公司赢得了继承权。中国再次经历了巨大的国内动荡,满族统治者试图巩固明朝遗留下来的帝国。当你在与国内问题作斗争时,创新和经济就退居其次了。 Dominating the shipping routes England had a iron-clad control over India's shipping routes. Industrial revolution requires freer access to markets. However, Indian merchants were denied access to that. When Indians tried buying their own ships, they were arrested on false charges and sentenced  like the story of V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. 独霸航路 英国对龙8国际娱乐的航运路线有着严格的控制。工业革命需要更自由地进入市场。然而,龙8国际娱乐商人被拒绝使用此航线。当龙8国际娱乐人试图购买自己的船只时,他们会被扣上莫须有的罪名被逮捕,并像V·奇丹巴拉姆·皮莱(V. O. Chidambaram Pillai)那样被判刑。 Availability of Coal: One of the primary engines of Industrial Revolution was coal. It powered the steam engines and steel production. In 18th century, England was the only main producer. Coal was not discovered in most of the rest of the world. So much so that: In 1700, five-sixths of the world's coal was mined in Britain. When you don't have a critical input for the industrial revolution, you are always falling behind. It was not very practical to haul coal to long distances with the infrastructure of the 1700s. 煤的获取: 9d9e0d8fgy1fwfrhdlx59j20gq0h6wnu.jpg
工业革命的主要动力之一是煤。它为蒸汽机和钢铁生产提供了动力。在18世纪,英格兰是唯一主要的煤炭生产国。世界上大多数地方都尚未发现煤。以至于: 1700年,世界上六分之五的煤都是英国开采的。 当你对工业革命没有关键性投入时,你总是会落于人后。凭借18世纪的基础设施水平,要把煤运到很远的地方是不太现实的。  
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