Why are the countries with the longest civilizations, like China, Iraq, Egypt, and India, generally poorer per capita? 为什么拥有最悠久文明的国家,如中国、伊拉克、埃及和龙8国际娱乐,人均收入普遍较低?   Quora评论翻译: Gary Allen, Trying to keep current is exhausting. That poverty is a widespread condition in these areas where the oldest civilizations first developed is true, at present, but there are strong indications that change is underway which will correct that.  The thousands of years which these senior civilizations have remained on their territories means that dense populations have harvested many crops, which has led to the impoverishment of the soil.  Being the first to arrive at complex societies meant that these areas made mistakes which no one had enough information to understand and resolve. 的确,贫困在这些最古老文明的发源地是普遍存在的,但目前有明显的迹象表明,这一情况正在改善。这些古老文明延续了几千年,人们大量种植作物,导致土壤贫瘠。作为首批进入复杂社会体系的国家,这意味着这些地区会犯某些错误,当时却都不具备理解和解决这些问题的能力 Egypt's prosperity throughout the ancient kingdoms was largely due to the annual flooding of the Nile.  After all, Egypt's surplus grain fed the Romans for a couple of hundred years.  In recent times, the building of the Aswan High Dam has blocked so much of the Nile's flow that the valley soil is less rich and the Delta is beginning to sink back into the Mediterranean Sea in places from the lack of renewing silt. 埃及王国的繁荣很大程度上是得益于尼罗河每年的洪水。毕竟,埃及过剩的粮食养活了罗马人几百年。在近代,阿斯旺大坝的修建拦截了尼罗河的大部分水流,使得河谷的土壤变得不那么肥沃,三角洲由于缺新的泥沙重陷地中海。 Iraq is in a largely hot, desert climate and only the widespread use of irrigation allowed it to prosper and maintain large populations.  Irrigation is a short-term solution, and the lands in Iraq have fallen useless for periods of time, because irrigation ultimately poisons the soil with metals.  After a hundred years or so, the soil has then been reclaimed and re-irrigated time and again.  Iraq, like Egypt, has such deep problems with a functioning government that people today are suffering, even with the influx of oil wealth, but there is no reason to believe this cannot be overcome again. 伊拉克沙漠气候,炎热干燥,只有广泛利用灌溉才能使其繁荣并维持大量人口。灌溉是一个短期的解决方案,而且由于灌溉最终会污染(金属污染)土壤伊拉克的土地很长一段时期内都会毫无用处。大约一百年后,土壤已经一次次被重新开垦和灌溉。伊拉克和埃及一样,在一个运转正常的政府的统治下仍存在着如此严重的问题,以至于即使石油财富的涌入,今天的人们仍在遭受苦难,但这一问题并非无法再次克服。 India has been a highly productive land with a dense population for a very long time, but its success in producing more food during the 20th century has also led to a huge ballooning of its population.  If India can continue as a democracy, it is likely to make wise enough decisions to outlive this swelling of the population; then, as future generations arise, a rational limiting of the birth rate will allow everyone to live a well-fed, decent life. 在很长一段时期内,龙8国际娱乐一直是一块高产的土地,人口密集,但20世纪的粮食高产,也导致了其人口的急剧膨胀。如果龙8国际娱乐能做出足够明智的决定,以度过人口膨胀的时期然后,随着未来几代人的崛起,合理限制出生率将使每个人都能过上衣食无忧的体面生活。 China has had a river problem, too, but in China's case it was at least three major rivers which flooded frequently--to great benefit in the growing of rice and other cereals, but with frequent damage and loss of life.  China has suffered during the 19th and 20th centuries from foreign interference in its own government, and then when it did reunify, has suffered from mismanagement by a rigid and authoritarian system which destroyed almost as much as it built. 中国也有河流问题,至少有三条主要河流经常泛滥——这对水稻和其他谷物的种植大有好处,但经常造成破坏和生命损失。在19世纪和20世纪期间,中国遭受了外国对其政府的干预,而当中国真正实现统一时,又受到了权威体制管理不善的影响,这种制度几乎摧毁了它所建设的东西 The sooner each of these cultural regions finds sustainable solutions to their problems of overuse and overpopulation, the sooner they will put poverty behind them. 这些文明地区越早找到解决过度开垦和人口过剩问题的可持续办法,就越早摆脱贫困。   Ahhaan Badhwar, Indian learning about China The Indian and Chinese civilizations have been the most populated civilazations in history leaving Iraq and Egypt aside.Before the Industrial Revolution, populations grew in relation to the resources available to them. If a region had a stable climate, good soil, and plenty of water, the population would rise quickly. Eastern China and India were such regions. 暂且不论伊拉克和埃及龙8国际娱乐和文明中国文明是历史上人口最多的文明。在工业革命之前,人口的增长与他们所拥有的资源有关。如果一个地区有稳定的气候、肥沃的土壤和充足的水,人口将迅速增长。中国东部和龙8国际娱乐就是这样的地区。
Both India and China had massive control over the world’s GDP till end of the 19th century. 直到19世纪末,龙8国际娱乐和中国都对世界GDP有着巨大的贡献
The condition of India, its economy, its people and institutions, before the British rule is described again based mainly on foreign traveller’s accounts or reputed Western sources.They show that India in no way was backward, economically or socially. INDIA BEFORE THE BRITISH RULE HAD THE SECOND MOST POWERFUL ECONOMY IN THE WORLD and dominated the world trade by its exports. 在英国统治之前,龙8国际娱乐的经济、人民和制度状况的描述主要是基于外国游客的描述或西方刊物。它们表明,龙8国际娱乐无论在经济上还是社会上都绝不落后。在英国统治之前,龙8国际娱乐是世界第二大经济体,以出口主导世界贸易。 译文来源:三泰虎    译者:Jessica.Wu 24-exports.png It was India’s riches that had attracted hoards of invaders for millennia before the British that made the seafarers like Columbus and Vasco De Gama seek new trade routes to it.The Brithish rule lead to a total decline of Indian cotton industry and British cotton was sold in Indian markets. 在英国人到来之前的几千里里,龙8国际娱乐的财富吸引了大量的侵略者,使得像哥伦布和伽马这样的航海家寻求新的贸易路线。英国的统治导致了龙8国际娱乐棉花工业的全面衰退,使得英国棉花得以在龙8国际娱乐市场上销售。 India suffered a period of stagnation for around 350 years from 1600 till 1950. The problem originated because there was a decline in demand for Indian products such as weapons, jewelry, and luxurious textiles such as muslin (Maddison 2006). . Moreover, the interests of the British rulers were not aligned with the interests of the Indian subjects. 从1600年到1950年,龙8国际娱乐经历了大约350年的停滞期。这一问题的起因是龙8国际娱乐对武器、珠宝和奢侈纺织品如薄纱的需求下降。此外,英国统治者的利益与龙8国际娱乐臣民的利益不一致。 Floods had always been a problem for China leading to alot of turmoil. 洪水一直是中国的一问题,导致了大量的动乱。 25-turmoil.png The Yellow River or Huang He is the second-longest river in Asia, following the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi). 黄河是仅次于长江的亚洲第二长河,也是世界第六长河,全长5464公里(3395英里)。 26-3395 mi.png Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. However, because of frequent devastating floods and course changes produced by the continual elevation of the river bed, sometimes above the level of its surrounding farm fields, it also has the names China's Sorrow and 'Scourge of the Han People' 黄河流域中国古代文明的发祥地,也是中国早期历史上最繁荣的地区。然而,由于频繁的破坏性洪水和河床不断升高所造成的河道变化,有时甚至超过周围农田的高度,它也被称为“中国的悲哀”和“汉人的祸患” Since 600 BC, the Chinese have recorded over 1,500 floods, earning it the name “China’s Sorrow.” Across the world there are rivers with valleys more populous, the Yangtze for instance 自公元前600年以来,中国人已经遭受1500次洪水,黄河因而被称为“中国的悲哀”。此外还有其它人口稠密的河流和山谷,比如长江 27-instance.png After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, China underwent a period of instability and disrupted economic activity. Later on China went through major events such as Japanese invasion in 1937,Great Leap Forward, 1958–60,The Cultural Revolution decade 1966–7 which distrubed the economic prosperity of the region. 1912年清王朝覆灭后,中国经历了一段不稳定时期,经济发展中断。后来,中国经历了一些重大事件,如1937年的日本入侵、1958-60年的大跃进、1966 - 1976年的文革,这些事件影响了该地区的经济繁荣。 The ancient Egyptian civilization depended heavily on river Nile.Although the glory of this civilization did’nt last very long as Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. 古埃及文明高度依赖尼罗河。虽然古埃及文明的辉煌并没有持续很长时间,托勒密王国统治埃及直到公元前30年,克利奥帕特拉(埃及艳后)的统治下,埃及落入罗马帝国手中,成为罗马的一个省。古埃及文明的成功在一定程度上是由于它能够适应尼罗河流域的农业条件。 Later on in 642- Egypt conquered by rashidun caliphate and later on by Ottoman Turks in 1517. 后来在642年埃及被四大哈里发占领之后在1517年又被奥斯曼土耳其人占领。 28-1517.png
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