China's FM-2000 Short-Range Air Defense System: A Real Threat? 中国FM-2000短程防空系统: 真正的威胁?  3.jpg Mark Episkopos Security, Or just another Russian copy? China's FM-2000 Short-Range Air Defense System: A Real Threat? 中国FM-2000短程防空系统是一个真正的威胁?或者只是一个俄罗斯翻版? The 2018 Zhuhai Airshow, held from November 6-11, was headlined by China’s latest demonstrations of its flagship J-10B and J-20 jet fighters. But throughout the show, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) displayed scores of military gear ranging from self-propelled howitzers to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Analyzing the PLA’s extensive ground forces lineup at the 2018 Airshow gives us a better indication of where the Chinese military is focusing its development resources, and can even shed some insight into the PLA’s strategic priorities. 在11月6日至11日举行的2018珠海航展上,中国歼- 10B和歼-20战机的最新展示成为了焦点。但在整个展览中,中国人民解放军(PLA)展示了从自行榴弹炮到全地形车辆(ATVs等数十种军用装备。通过分析中国人民解放军在2018年航空展上庞大的地面部队阵容,可以更好地了解中国军方的优先发展项目,甚至可以对中国军方的战略重点有所了解。 One such bellwether is the FM-2000, a short-range air defense system (SHORAD) unveiled at the Zhuhai Airshow. The FM-2000 is intended to support ground forces or defend infrastructure at a maximum effective range of up to 15 km and at altitudes of up to 1,000 m. 其中一个值得注意的佼佼者就是FM-2000,在珠海航空展上亮相的短程防空系统(SHORAD)。FM-2000旨在支持地面部队或防御基础设施,最大有效射程可达15公里,高度可达1000米。 It can counter the typical group of targets expected from a short-range air defense installation: “The system can engage fixed-wing aircraft, combat rotary-wing platforms, air-to-surface munitions, and cruise missiles,”  the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) told Jane’s Defence Weekly. 该系统可以对抗短程防空装置预期的典型目标群。中国航天科工集团公司(CASIC)在接受简氏防务周刊采访时表示:“该系统可以打击固定翼飞机、战斗旋翼平台、空对地弹药和巡航导弹。” The FM-2000 bears a host of technical similarities to Russia’s recent Tor M2K, a wheeled short-range surface-to-air system with approximately the same range as its Chinese counterpart. The full story, however, is more complicated than a straightforward case of borrowed design. FM-2000在技术上与俄罗斯最近的Tor M2K有许多相似之处,Tor M2K是一种轮式近程地对空系统,其射程与中国FM-2000类似。然而,这比简单的借用设计要复杂得多。 China did purchase Tor systems from Russia; namely, over a dozen of the original Tor-M1’s from 1996 to 2000. The PLA used the Tor-M1 as a foundation to develop its own HQ-17 short-range missile defense system, but with some meaningful technical improvements. These include a modernized suite of onboard electronics, an Identity Friend Foe (IFF) antenna integrated into a new radar system, and an upgraded communication system. 中国确实从俄罗斯购买了Tor系统,从1996年到2000年,购进超过12套原版Tor-M1系统。PLA使用Tor-M1作为基础开发自己的HQ-17短程导弹防御系统,但是有一些有意义的技术改进,包括现代化的机载电子设备,集成到新雷达系统中的敌我识别(IFF)天线,以及升级的通信系统。 The FM-2000 is based not off the Tor-M2K, but of China’s HQ-17. In fact, the performance overlap between the two is so extensive that the FM-2000 appears as a negligible upgrade over its predecessor. FM-2000不是基于Tor-M2K,而是基于中国的红旗-17。事实上,两者之间的性能重叠是如此之大,以至于与上一代相比,FM-2000似乎是微不足道的升级。 Their sole major difference lies in mobility: the continuous (i.e. caterpillar) tracks of Tor-M1 and its HQ-17 variant were plagued by a long lag time between stopping and shooting, a design shortcoming fixed with the introduction of the FM-2000’s wheeled chassis. The FM-2000 also features upgraded electronic countermeasures (ECM) in the form of counter-jamming capability against multiple targets. 它们唯一的主要区别在于机动性:Tor-M1和红旗-17的连续履带(即履带)在停止和射击的转换之间有很长的滞后,FM-2000轮式底盘的引入修复了这个设计缺陷。FM-2000还升级了电子对抗能力(ECM),对抗多目标的抗干扰能力。 These are relatively minor improvements, while the FM-2000’s combat performance has been left almost entirely untouched from its predecessor. What, then, is the FM-2000’s intended purpose if not as a technical successor to the HQ-17? It is likely the HQ-17’s export variant, much like what the medium-range FD-2000 defense system is to the HQ-9. 这些都是相对较小的改进,而FM-2000的战斗性能几乎完全没有受到其前任的影响。如果它不是红旗-17的技术继承者,那FM-2000的预期目标是什么呢?它很可能是红旗-17的出口改型,类似红旗9之于中程FD-2000防御系统。 Whereas the HQ-17 is too expensive to be competitive on the global export market at a cost of $26 million per unit, a fresh production cycle gives CASIC engineers the chance to implement more affordable components while integrating mobility and ECM upgrades in a cost-effective way. 然而红旗-17售价太贵了,每套2600万美元,在全球出口市场上没有竞争力,但一个全新的生产周期让CASIC的工程师有机会安装更实惠的部件,同时以最具成本效益的方式集成机动性,升级电子对抗能力。 Turkey almost signed a contract for the FD-2000 system in 2013, with Ankara cancelling the deal at the eleventh hour due to US pressure. Pakistan is reportedly far along in negotiations to purchase 3 to 4 FD-2000’s, but the ink on the many fine details is far from dry. 2013年,土耳其几乎签署了一份FD-2000系统的合同,但由于美国的压力,安卡拉在最后一刻取消了该协议。据报道,巴基斯坦正在就购买3-4套FD-2000进行谈判,但许多细节尚未敲定。 With mixed success thus far, it remains to be seen if China’s surface-to-air export variants manage to carve out a slice of the global export market. The FM-2000 faces its stiffest competition from Russia’s similarly-performing Tor-2E, which is being advertised with the added benefit of interfacing with NATO air defense systems. 到目前为止,中国地对空导弹能否在全球出口市场上分一杯羹,还有待观察。FM-2000面临着来自具有相似性能的俄罗斯Tor-2E的最激烈竞争,正宣传Tor-2E具有可干扰北约防空系统的优势。   美国雅虎读者评论: 译文来源:三泰虎   译者:Jessica.Wu 外文: GT312 hours ago National Interest multiple daily fear pieces on foreign miltary dominance over US 《国家利益》每天都有很多关于外国军队美国更具强大的报道,危言耸听。   A Dog15 hours ago Man! I've seen way too many The National Interest articles on yahoo today. Must be desperate for readership. 我在雅虎上看太多国家利益的文   MPC2 days ago the range tells, it's for local drone or transport hellicopter. it's not for the Jets and most of attack hellicopter. 射程表明,这只能对付无人机或运输直升机,不是用来对付战机的   henry17 hours ago they do any thing they want but in a nuclear war nothing matters anymore just paper!. 他们爱干嘛干嘛,核战争中,什么都不重要了!   John15 hours ago liberals want to go to war with syria, russia and now china 自由希望叙利亚、俄罗斯以及中国开战   Tomtom13 hours ago Don't worry about China's FM-2000 Short-Range Air Defense System. Made in China is a copied product from Russia, US, … Some of them working very well and some others do have problems. 别担心中国的FM-2000短程防空系统。中国制造”意味着是俄罗斯美国的仿制品,有些还不错有些确实有问题。   Stinky Davis12 hours ago We have to surrender and get good terms. We are beaten by the super super unbeatable China! 我们必须投降,争取有利的条。我们被超级无敌的中国打败了!   Nelson11 hours ago Defensive means threat? 防御系统有什么威胁?   James7 hours ago I’m showing them,I’m not buying Russian vodka and I don’t eat at Chinese restaurants 我不买俄罗斯伏特加,我也不在中国餐馆吃饭   Motorcyclemikein 2 minutes Given the range this platform would only be effective against helicopters, maybe CAS aircraft like the A10. The A10 would have a decent chance to out maneuver the missiles, not so much the choppers. 这个系统的射程来看,它只对直升机有效,也许A10这近距离空中支援飞机有效   Satchmo11 hours ago Why would a defense system be a threat? 为什么防御系统会构成威胁?   Hmoob10 hours ago Don't worry, these missiles don't work as they claimed, you have to proof when it comes to real war. 别担心,这些导弹并不像他们声称的那样有效,必须在实战中证明。   everlast69yesterday If the US told Japan to attack China they would.. 如果美国让日本攻击中国,他们会照做的   Daniel7 hours ago OK CHINA WILL BE COME THE BEST AT EVERYTHING GIVEN A LITTLE MORE TIME >> THE JEWS HAVE MODIFIED US EQUIPMENTS & OTHER PEOPLE THINGS FOR YEARS>>>> & LIKE JAPAN YEARS AGO ABOUT THE CAR INDUSTRY THEY BEAT THE USA & OTHERS CHINA WILL BEAT THEM >> 好吧,给中国一点时间,他们会在所有方面都做最好 就像日本汽车工业几年前打败美国一样,中国也会打败美国的   John5 hours ago China is ruled by hardliners COMMUNISTS( evidence? FACEBOOK is not allowed in the mainland China).How do we know the effectiveness of Chia made weapon? In contrast, US is a free society, tax payers have the right to know how and where their money is spent. 我们如何知道中国武器的有效性?相反,美国是一个自由社会,纳税人有权利知道他们的钱是怎么花的,花在哪里了   Clowns Everywhere8 hours ago Why would a defence system would be a threat. According to America American defense systems are never been a threat to Russia or China... US even managed to supply the "defensive" lethal arms. Could you imagine more ridiculous thing? 为什么防御系统会构成威胁。美国的国防系统从来没有对俄罗斯或中国构成威胁   ¤j¤j15 hours ago Threat from China is already not thing new 来自中国的威胁已经不是什么新鲜事了   billy110 hours ago YEP! A short range air defense missile is a threat. To North Korea? 短程防空导弹是一种威胁,对朝鲜吗?   troll of cheezna9 hours ago Chinese products are all unreliable ! use for it propaganda ! torpedoes floated freely on coast of Vietnam last couple weeks and regarded as "lost". LMAO ! 中国产品都不可靠!都是为了宣传!过去几周,鱼雷在越南海岸自由漂浮,被视为“失踪”。笑死我了 !   Jim3 hours ago I believe the Chinese are capable of taking the world over. Very smart and very capable. Be wise America. 我相信中国人有能力征服世界。他们非常聪明,非常能干。美国明智   Harold14 hours ago Can I buy some of these short range missiles for the kids at Walmart or do they have lead in the paint 我能在沃尔玛给孩子们买些短程导弹吗?油漆里含铅吗?   kyle7 hours ago I?m pretty sure the US can take on Russia and China together... but why? These articles are for fear, the socialist #$%$ did the same thing!! 我很确定美国能单挑俄罗斯和中国这些文章是为了造成恐惧   madtaxpayer14 hours ago threat?? America is too far for a short range......! 威胁? ?对于这种短程防御系统来说,美国太远了!
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